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One and the same: Integrative taxonomic evidence that Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the same species as the Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis

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Schutze, M. K., Mahmood, K., Pavasovic, A., Bo, W., Newman, J., Clarke, A. R., Krosch, M. N. and Cameron, S. L. (2015) One and the same: Integrative taxonomic evidence that Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the same species as the Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis. Systematic Entomology, 40 (2). pp. 472-486.

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Article Link: https://doi.org/10.1111/syen.12114


The invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, and the Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) are highly destructive horticultural pests of global significance. Bactrocera invadens originates from the Indian subcontinent and has recently invaded all of sub-Saharan Africa, while B. dorsalis principally occurs from the Indian subcontinent towards southern China and South-east Asia. High morphological and genetic similarity has cast doubt over whether B. invadens is a distinct species from B. dorsalis. Addressing this issue within an integrative taxonomic framework, we sampled from across the geographic distribution of both taxa and: (i) analysed morphological variation, including those characters considered diagnostic (scutum colour, length of aedeagus, width of postsutural lateral vittae, wing size, and wing shape); (ii) sequenced four loci (ITS1, ITS2, cox1 and nad4) for phylogenetic inference; and (iii) generated a cox1 haplotype network to examine population structure. Molecular analyses included the closely related species, Bactrocera kandiensis Drew & Hancock. Scutum colour varies from red-brown to fully black for individuals from Africa and the Indian subcontinent. All individuals east of the Indian subcontinent are black except for a few red-brown individuals from China. The postsutural lateral vittae width of B. invadens is narrower than B. dorsalis from eastern Asia, but the variation is clinal, with subcontinent B. dorsalis populations intermediate in size. Aedeagus length, wing shape and wing size cannot discriminate between the two taxa. Phylogenetic analyses failed to resolve B. invadens from B. dorsalis, but did resolve B. kandiensis. Bactrocera dorsalis and B. invadens shared cox1 haplotypes, yet the haplotype network pattern does not reflect current taxonomy or patterns in thoracic colour. Some individuals of B. dorsalis/B. invadens possessed haplotypes more closely related to B. kandiensis than to conspecifics, suggestive of mitochondrial introgression between these species. The combined evidence fails to support the delimitation of B. dorsalis and B. invadens as separate biological species. Consequently, existing biological data for B. dorsalis may be applied to the invasive population in Africa. Our recommendation, in line with other recent publications, is that B. invadens be synonymized with B. dorsalis. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

Item Type:Article
Business groups:Biosecurity Queensland
Keywords:Sub-Saharan Africa Bactrocera dorsalis Bactrocera kandiensis Diptera Tephritidae fly geographical distribution horticulture invasive species mitochondrion molecular analysis morphology pest species plant-herbivore interaction population structure taxonomy
Subjects:Science > Entomology
Science > Zoology > Invertebrates > Insects
Plant culture > Fruit and fruit culture
Plant pests and diseases > Economic entomology
Live Archive:04 Jan 2024 04:37
Last Modified:04 Jan 2024 04:37

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