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Synergism Between Phosphine (PH3) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2): Implications for Managing PH3 Resistance in Rusty Grain Beetle (Laemophloeidae: Coleoptera)

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Constantin, M., Jagadeesan, R., Chandra, K. A., Ebert, P. and Nayak, M. K. (2020) Synergism Between Phosphine (PH3) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2): Implications for Managing PH3 Resistance in Rusty Grain Beetle (Laemophloeidae: Coleoptera). Journal of Economic Entomology, 113 (4). pp. 1999-2006. ISSN 0022-0493

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Article Link: https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toaa081


Strong resistance to phosphine (PH3) in the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Laemophloeidae: Coleoptera) poses a serious risk to stored-grain biosecurity. Resistant populations hold risk of surviving in PH3 fumigation, particularly in storage structure that limits achieving very high concentrations of PH3, demanding the need for alternative fumigation strategies. Cofumigation with PH3 and carbon dioxide (CO2) is one alternative approach that has the potential to be used widely. CO2 fumigation of adults of strongly PH3-resistant reference strain of C. ferrugineus, for 48 h, showed that the effective concentration (LC50) of CO2 was 30.99%. This 30% level of CO2 in combination with PH3 decreased the LC50 of PH3 from 6.7 mg/liter to 0.84 mg/liter, an eightfold increase in PH3 efficacy relative to PH3 fumigation in normal air. The LC99.9 decreased from 16.2 mg/liter to 5.8 mg/liter, a 2.8-fold increase in PH3 efficacy. Comparison of mortality response data of PH3 alone and the PH3 + CO2 mixture confirmed that CO2 enhances the toxicity of PH3 synergistically in addition to exerting its own toxicity. These results were validated against three independently field-derived strains of strongly resistant C. ferrugineus that confirmed that observed enhancement in toxicity with the PH3 + CO2 mixture was consistent, irrespective of differences in resistance phenotypes and inherent tolerance levels. Results of the current study provide further opportunities to develop new commercially viable strategy to control strongly PH3-resistant C. ferrugineus.

Item Type:Article
Business groups:Crop and Food Science, Animal Science
Subjects:Science > Entomology
Science > Invasive Species > Plants > Impact assessment
Science > Botany > Genetics
Plant culture > Field crops
Plant culture > Field crops > Grain. Cereals
Plant pests and diseases
Live Archive:01 Sep 2020 02:13
Last Modified:03 Sep 2021 16:46

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