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Interactions of head-kidney leucocytes from giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus, with pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae strains from marine and terrestrial origins

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Delamare-Deboutteville, J., Kawasaki, M., Zoccola, E., Heath, C. M., Bowater, R. O. and Barnes, A. C. (2019) Interactions of head-kidney leucocytes from giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus, with pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae strains from marine and terrestrial origins. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 90 . pp. 250-263. ISSN 1050-4648

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Article Link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2019.04.058

Publisher URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1050464819302967


Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is emerging as a genetically diverse species infecting farmed and wild fish, including commercially and culturally important groupers. To better understand how S. agalactiae are pathogenic in fish, we investigated interactions between isolates from fish and terrestrial hosts and the cellular immune system of Queensland grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus using flow cytometry. Adherent head-kidney leucocytes (HKL) from Queensland grouper displayed two main cell populations with distinct forward and side scatter by flow cytometry. The population of smaller and less complex cells (P1) was composed of monocytes, lymphocytes and thrombocytes, while the population of primarily larger and more complex cells (P2) comprised predominantly of macrophages and neutrophils. The cells in P2 had higher phagocytic index and capacity when incubated with fluorescent latex beads. HKL were activated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) but were unresponsive to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PTG), suggesting the absence of specific receptors on the surface of these cells for these ligands or a requirement for intermediates. In in vitro phagocytosis assays, all fish isolates of GBS activated a respiratory burst in P2 indicated by significant production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Similarly, dog and cat isolates of different serotype and sequence type also induced ROS production in grouper HKL. However, human, crocodile and bovine isolates of GBS did not elicit significant ROS in HKL although they coincided with the highest phagocytic index. This suggests that these strains are capable of quenching ROS production. Terrestrial isolates significantly increased mortality of Queensland grouper leucocytes in vitro, aligned with a more diverse repertoire of cellular toxins in these strains. Opsonisation of a marine strain and terrestrial strain of GBS with antiserum raised against the marine strain resulted in an increase in ROS production by HKL in both cases although there was low antigenic cross reactivity between the two strains by flow cytometry, reflecting their diverse serotypes (Ib vs III). However, pre-incubation of either strain with normal serum from grouper also increased ROS production of HKL suggesting other opsonins may be involved. Based on these results it appears that piscine and terrestrial GBS isolates have contrasting strategies when interacting with the cellular immune system of Queensland grouper; the former seemingly evading phagocytosis, whilst the latter are readily phagocytosed but counteract ROS production.

Item Type:Article
Business groups:Biosecurity Queensland
Keywords:Head-kidney leucocytes Phagocytosis Respiratory activity Apoptosis Flow cytometry
Subjects:Veterinary medicine > Veterinary bacteriology
Aquaculture and Fisheries > Aquaculture > Fish culture > Diseases and adverse factors
Aquaculture and Fisheries > Fisheries > Fishery research
Live Archive:20 May 2019 00:44
Last Modified:03 Sep 2021 16:45

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