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Bioaccumulation and Distribution of Indospicine and Its Foregut Metabolites in Camels Fed Indigofera spicata

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Netzel, G., Tan, E. T. T., Yin, M., Giles, C., Yong, K. W. L., Al Jassim, R. and Fletcher, M. T. (2019) Bioaccumulation and Distribution of Indospicine and Its Foregut Metabolites in Camels Fed Indigofera spicata. Toxins (Basel), 11 (3). ISSN 2072-6651

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Article Link: https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11030169


In vitro experiments have demonstrated that camel foregut-fluid has the capacity to metabolize indospicine, a natural toxin which causes hepatotoxicosis, but such metabolism is in competition with absorption and outflow of indospicine from the different segments of the digestive system. Six young camels were fed Indigofera spicata (337 microg indospicine/kg BW/day) for 32 days, at which time three camels were euthanized. The remaining camels were monitored for a further 100 days after cessation of this indospicine diet. In a retrospective investigation, relative levels of indospicine foregut-metabolism products were examined by UHPLC-MS/MS in plasma, collected during both accumulation and depletion stages of this experiment. The metabolite 2-aminopimelamic acid could be detected at low levels in almost all plasma samples, whereas 2-aminopimelic acid could not be detected. In the euthanized camels, 2-aminopimelamic acid could be found in all tissues except muscle, whereas 2-aminopimelic acid was only found in the kidney, pancreas, and liver tissues. The clearance rate for these metabolites was considerably greater than for indospicine, which was still present in plasma of the remaining camels 100 days after cessation of Indigofera consumption.

Item Type:Article
Business groups:Biosecurity Queensland
Keywords:2-aminopimelamic acid 2-aminopimelic acid camel food safety foregut metabolites in vivo indospicine
Subjects:Animal culture
Veterinary medicine > Veterinary microbiology
Veterinary medicine > Veterinary toxicology
Live Archive:02 Apr 2019 02:17
Last Modified:17 May 2022 05:59

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