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Germination behaviour of Avena sterilis subsp. ludoviciana under a range of light and temperature regimes

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Ali, M., Suthar, P. C., Williams, A., Widderick, M. J. and Adkins, S. W. (2022) Germination behaviour of Avena sterilis subsp. ludoviciana under a range of light and temperature regimes. Crop and Pasture Science .

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Article Link(s): https://doi.org/10.1071/CP22074

Publisher URL: https://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/CP22074

Abstract

Context: Avena sterilis subsp. ludoviciana (wild oats) is one of the major winter weeds of the Northern Grains Region of Australia. The abundance of this weed increased dramatically after the adoption of no-tillage conservation agriculture (NTCA). However, information is lacking on the germination characteristics of the two types of seed (i.e. primary and secondary) that it produces.Aims: We aimed to determine the light and temperature requirements for germination and the time to germination of primary and secondary seeds of A. ludoviciana, in order to find ways to manage this weed effectively under NTCA systems.Methods: Primary and secondary seeds and caryopses from two southern and two northern biotypes were exposed to a range of temperature and light regimes in the glasshouse, and germination was assessed.Key results: All biotypes had ∼25% higher germination from primary than secondary seeds. Removing the hull increased caryopsis germination by ∼70%. The use of a light/dark photoperiod stimulated germination of both types of seed and caryopses compared with continuous darkness. Based on data for caryopses, 7°C and 9°C were found to be optimal germination temperatures for southern and northern biotypes, respectively. At optimum germination temperature, primary caryopses germinated 7–20 days earlier than secondary caryopses. In addition, a light/dark environment resulted in germination 2–6 days earlier than continuous darkness.Conclusions: In the Northern Grains Region, seeds retained on or close to the soil surface (i.e. in NTCA systems) can undergo maximum germination during May–June (late autumn–winter), when long-term average temperatures match optimum germination temperatures. This coincides with winter crop plantings.Implications: The seasonal timing of germination and the difference in germination timing between primary and secondary seeds, which help to stagger emergence of this weed, are major issues that need to be addressed in NTCA systems.

Item Type:Article
Business groups:Crop and Food Science
Keywords:conservation agriculture, germination, light, no-tillage, primary seed, secondary seed, seed burial, soil surface, temperature, wild oats.
Subjects:Agriculture > Agriculture (General) > Agricultural meteorology. Crops and climate
Agriculture > Agriculture (General) > Methods and systems of culture. Cropping systems
Plant culture > Seeds. Seed technology
Plant pests and diseases > Weeds, parasitic plants etc
Agriculture > By region or country > Australia > Queensland
Deposited On:04 Nov 2022 03:07
Last Modified:04 Nov 2022 03:07

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