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Novel Hendra Virus Variant Detected by Sentinel Surveillance of Horses in Australia

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Annand, E. J., Horsburgh, B. A., Xu, K., Reid, P. A., Poole, B., de Kantzow, M. C., Brown, N., Tweedie, A., Michie, M., Grewar, J. D., Jackson, A. E., Singanallur, N. B., Plain, K. M., Kim, K., Tachedjian, M., van der Heide, B., Crameri, S., Williams, D. T., Secombe, C., Laing, E. D., Sterling, S., Yan, L., Jackson, L. A., Jones, C., Plowright, R. K., Peel, A. J., Breed, A. C., Diallo, I., Dhand, N. K., Britton, P. N., Broder, C. C., Smith, I. and Eden, J. S. (2022) Novel Hendra Virus Variant Detected by Sentinel Surveillance of Horses in Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28 (3). pp. 693-704.

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Article Link(s): https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2803.211245

Publisher URL: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/28/3/21-1245_article

Abstract

We identified and isolated a novel Hendra virus (HeV) variant not detected by routine testing from a horse in Queensland, Australia, that died from acute illness with signs consistent with HeV infection. Using whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, we determined the variant had ≈83% nt identity with prototypic HeV. In silico and in vitro comparisons of the receptor-binding protein with prototypic HeV support that the human monoclonal antibody m102.4 used for postexposure prophylaxis and current equine vaccine will be effective against this variant. An updated quantitative PCR developed for routine surveillance resulted in subsequent case detection. Genetic sequence consistency with virus detected in grey-headed flying foxes suggests the variant circulates at least among this species. Studies are needed to determine infection kinetics, pathogenicity, reservoir-species associations, viral-host coevolution, and spillover dynamics for this virus. Surveillance and biosecurity practices should be updated to acknowledge HeV spillover risk across all regions frequented by flying foxes. © 2022 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.

Item Type:Article
Business groups:Biosecurity Queensland
Keywords:immunoglobulin G immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibody nucleocapsid protein phosphoprotein phycoerythrin protein G animal cell animal experiment animal model Article Australia cohort analysis computer model controlled study crystal structure depression electron microscopy enzyme linked immunosorbent assay flying fox gel electrophoresis genetic variation Hendra virus infection high throughput analysis horse immunoassay nonhuman nucleotide sequence paramyxovirus infection phylogenetic tree real time polymerase chain reaction RNA sequencing screening sentinel surveillance Staphylococcus aureus tachycardia tachypnea Vero cell line viremia virus neutralization whole genome sequencing
Subjects:Veterinary medicine > Veterinary virology
Veterinary medicine > Diseases of special classes of animals
Veterinary medicine > Diseases of special classes of animals > Horses
Agriculture > By region or country > Australia
Deposited On:10 Mar 2022 06:40
Last Modified:10 Mar 2022 06:40

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