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Ultra-high-throughput DArTseq-based silicoDArT and SNP markers for genomic studies in macadamia

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Alam, M., Neal, J., O'Connor, K. M., Kilian, A. and Topp, B. (2018) Ultra-high-throughput DArTseq-based silicoDArT and SNP markers for genomic studies in macadamia. PLoS ONE, 13 (8). ISSN 19326203


Article Link: http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203465


Macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia, M. tetraphylla and hybrids) is an Australian native nut crop and has a significant economic value in the food industries worldwide. Long juvenility along with traditional breeding strategies impede quick genetic improvement of this crop. The existing cultivars constitute only second to fourth generation of the wild germplasm in the rainforest. The utilisation of molecular markers for genomic selection and genome-wide association studies may accelerate genetic gains. Identification of a robust, reproducible, and cost-effective marker system is instrumental in increasing the efficiency of genomic studies. This study is the first to report the potential of two ultra-high-throughput diversity array technology (DArT) markers (silicoDArT and SNP) in macadamia. Both markers were used to identify the genetic diversity and population structure in 80 macadamia cultivars. Parentage analysis of 25 scions in a rootstock trial was conducted to confirm plant identity where recorded identities did not corroborate with phenotypic field observations. A total of 22,280 silicoDArT and 7,332 SNP markers were reported, of which 11,526 silicoDArT and 3,956 SNP markers were used for analyses after screening with quality control parameters including >95% call rate, >95% reproducibility, and >0.05 one ratio. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) values of silicoDArT and SNP markers were 0.29 and 0.21, respectively. Genetic variance among the cultivars ranged from 0.003 to 0.738 in silicoDArT and 0.004 to 0.412 in SNP markers. Four distinct population groups were identified from SNP data analysis. Most of the accessions used in this study were descended from two or more populations. Cluster analysis clearly separated genotypes of distinct origins, such as the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station and Hidden Valley Plantation accessions. Two wild accessions of Macadamia jansenii and M. ternifolia were found to be distantly related to the cultivars. Wild germplasm individuals and their hybrids with cv. ‘660’ formed separate clusters, suggesting that crossing between wild and cultivated genepools can extend genetic diversity. DArTseq-based SNP markers were successfully utilized to confirm the genetic identity of 25 scions in a rootstock trial. Our study suggests that DArT platforms are a robust system for the facilitation of genomic studies with regard to macadamia. © 2018 Alam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Item Type:Article
Business groups:Horticulture and Forestry Science
Keywords:adult article cluster analysis cultivar data analysis facilitation genetic gain genetic marker genetic variability genome-wide association study germplasm Hawaii human human cell identity Macadamia nonhuman parentage analysis plantation population group population structure quality control reproducibility rhizome
Subjects:Science > Botany > Genetics
Plant culture > Food crops
Plant culture > Fruit and fruit culture > Nuts
Live Archive:05 Mar 2019 03:49
Last Modified:19 Jan 2024 00:20

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