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Divergent human origin influenza viruses detected in Australian swine populations

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Wong, F. Y. K., Donato, C., Deng, Y.-M., Teng, D., Komadina, N., Baas, C., Modak, J., O'Dea, M., Smith, D. W., Effler, P. V., Cooke, J., Davies, K. R., Hurt, A., Kung, N., Levy, A., Loh, R., Shan, S., Shinwari, M. W., Stevens, V., Taylor, J., Williams, D. T., Watson, J., Eagles, D., McCullough, S., Barr, I. G. and Dhanasekaran, V. (2018) Divergent human origin influenza viruses detected in Australian swine populations. Journal of Virology, 92 (16). e00316-e00318.

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Article Link: https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.00316-18

Publisher URL: https://jvi.asm.org/content/92/16/e00316-18.long


Global swine populations infected with influenza A viruses pose a persistent pandemic risk. With the exception of a few countries, our understanding of the genetic diversity of swine influenza viruses is limited, hampering control measures and pandemic risk assessment. Here we report the genomic characteristics and evolutionary history of influenza A viruses isolated in Australia during 2012–2016 from two geographically isolated swine populations in the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Phylogenetic analysis with an expansive human and swine influenza virus dataset comprising >40,000 sequences sampled globally, revealed evidence of the pervasive introduction and long-term establishment of gene segments derived from several human influenza viruses of past seasons, including H1N1/1977, H1N1/1995, H3N2/1968, H3N2/2003, and H1N1pdm09, and a genotype that contained gene segments derived from the past three pandemics (1968, re-emerged 1977 and 2009). Of the six human-derived gene lineages only one comprising two viruses isolated in Queensland during 2012 was closely related to swine viruses detected from other regions, indicating a previously undetected circulation of Australian swine lineages for approximately 3–44 years. Although the date of introduction of these lineages into Australian swine populations could not be accurately ascertained, we found evidence of sustained transmission of two lineages in swine during 2012–2016. The continued detection of human-origin influenza virus lineages in swine over several decades with little or unpredictable antigenic drift indicates that isolated swine populations can act as ‘antigenic archives’ of human influenza, raising the risk of re-emergence in humans when sufficient susceptible populations arise.IMPORTANCE We described the evolutionary origins and antigenic properties of influenza A viruses isolated from two separate Australian swine populations during 2012–2016, showing that these viruses were distinct to each other and to those isolated from swine globally. Whole genome sequencing of virus isolates revealed a high genotypic diversity that had been generated exclusively through the introduction and establishment of human influenza viruses that circulated in past seasons. We detected six reassortants with gene segments derived from human H1N1/H1N1pdm09 and various human H3N2 viruses that circulated at various periods since 1968. We also found that these swine viruses were not related to swine viruses collected elsewhere indicating independent circulation. The detection of unique lineages and genotypes in Australia suggests that isolated swine populations that are sufficiently large can sustain influenza for extensive periods, we showed direct evidence of a sustained transmission for at least 4 years between 2012–2016.

Item Type:Article
Business groups:Biosecurity Queensland
Keywords:Antigenicity Influenza surveillance Pandemic risk Phylogenetic analysis Reassortment Swine influenza 2009 H1N1 influenza animal tissue Article genetic variability genotype Influenza A virus Influenza A virus (H1N1) Influenza A virus (H3N2) molecular evolution nonhuman phylogeny pig priority journal Queensland sequence analysis virus detection virus genome virus isolation virus transmission Western Australia animal classification genetic variation genetics human isolation and purification molecular epidemiology orthomyxovirus infection swine disease veterinary virology Animals Humans Orthomyxoviridae Infections Swine Swine Diseases
Subjects:Animal culture > Swine
Veterinary medicine > Veterinary virology
Veterinary medicine > Diseases of special classes of animals > Swine
Live Archive:06 Dec 2018 05:37
Last Modified:03 Sep 2021 16:44

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