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Developing medium to large seeded kabuli chickpeas with early maturity, improved yield and Ascochyta bight resistance for Australian growers

Hobson, K. and Dron, N. and Day, S. and Borgognone, G. and McMurray, L. (2016) Developing medium to large seeded kabuli chickpeas with early maturity, improved yield and Ascochyta bight resistance for Australian growers. In: 2016 Australian Pulse Conference, Tamworth, NSW.

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Abstract

Medium to large seeded kabuli chickpeas can be a profitable option for chickpea growers, particularly in south eastern Australia (1). A considerable price premium generally exists for grain greater than 8 mm compared to desi and small seeded kabulis (6-7 mm). Historically Australia’s medium to large seeded varieties have required favourable spring conditions to achieve good yields and seed size greater than 8 mm. In years with short seasons or dry springs, the larger seeded kabuli varieties performed poorly and were therefore considered unreliable and risky, particularly in low to medium rainfall environments. Following the outbreak of Ascochyta blight (AB) in the late 1990’s, the subsequent seven kabuli varieties released were all bred at the International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA). These varieties provided the required AB resistance and acceptable adaptation, particularly the smaller seeded varieties Genesis™090 and Genesis™079. The first Australian bred kabuli variety was PBA Monarch released in 2012.
PBA Monarch is a medium sized kabuli with early flowering and maturity providing significantly improved yields over current medium and large seeded varieties in short season environments such as the South Australian Yorke Peninsula, Mid North and Victorian Mallee. However its plant type can be prone to lodging under high biomass and it is moderately susceptible to AB.
The Pulse Breeding Australia (PBA) Chickpea program has made a concerted effort to combine improved seed size, AB resistance, erect plant type and earlier maturity using PBA Monarch, elite PBA breeding lines and international germplasm. New breeding lines have been developed and evaluated in yield trials in South Australia, Victoria and northern New South Wales. Multienvironment (MET) analyses were used to identify lines with superior yields and examine how individual environments correlate. The 2015 season featured a very short spring and a number of medium to large seeded lines were identified with increased yield compared to PBA Monarch with an erect plant type. Although some lines had exceptional yields only in the short season 2015 trials, other lines demonstrated wide adaptation and improved yield stability with superior yields in the 2015 trials as well as longer season 2014 trials. Assessment of AB resistance has also occurred and a number of these early maturing high yielding breeding lines have increased AB resistance compared to PBA Monarch.
The development of medium and large seeded kabulis with superior yield and adaptation will provide more reliable and profitable varieties for south eastern Australian chickpea growers. The next challenge for the PBA Chickpea program is to improve the Phytophthora root rot (PRR) resistance to elite adapted breeding lines to provide growers in north eastern Australia improved opportunities in kabuli chickpea production.

Item Type:Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Business groups:Crop and Food Science
Subjects:Agriculture > Agriculture (General) > Methods and systems of culture. Cropping systems
Plant culture > Food crops
Plant pests and diseases
Deposited On:05 Oct 2017 01:53
Last Modified:05 Oct 2017 01:59

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