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Improved understanding of the damage, ecology, and management of mirids and stinkbugs in Bollgard II

Khan, Moazzem (2008) Improved understanding of the damage, ecology, and management of mirids and stinkbugs in Bollgard II. Project Report. Cotton Research Development Corporation.

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Article Link(s): http://www.insidecotton.com/jspui/bitstream/1/3954...

Abstract

In recent years mirids and stinkbugs have emerged as important sucking pests in cotton. While stinkbugs are causing damage to bolls, mirids are causing damage to seedlings, squares and bolls. With the increasing adoption of Bollgard II and IPM approaches the use of broad-spectrum chemicals to kill Helicoverpa has been reduced and as a result mirids and stinkbugs are building to levels causing damage to bolls later in crop growth stages. Studies on stinkbugs by Dr Moazzem Khan revealed that green vegetable bug (GVB) caused significant boll damage and yield loss. A preliminary study by Dr Khan on mirids revealed that high mirid numbers at later growth stages also caused significant boll damage and that damage caused by mirids and GVB were similar. Mirids and stinkbugs therefore demand greater attention in order to minimise losses caused by these pests and to develop IPM strategies against these pests to enhance gains in IPM that have been made with Bt-transgenic cotton. Progress in this area of research will maintain sustainability and profitability of the Australian cotton industry. Mirid damage at early growth stages of cotton (up to squaring stage) has been studied in detail by Dr Khan. He found that all ages of mirids cause damage to young plants and damage by mirid nymphs is cumulative. Maximum damage occurs when the insect reaches the 4th and 5th nymphal stages. He also found that mirid feeding causes shedding of small and medium squares, and damaged large squares develop as ‘parrot beak’ bolls. Detailed studies at the boll stage, such as which stage of mirids is most damaging or which age boll is most vulnerable to feeding, is lacking. This information is a prerequisite to developing an IPM strategy for the pest in later crop growth stages. Understanding population change of the pest over time in relation to crop development is an important aspect for developing management strategies for the pest which is lacking for mirids in BollgardII. Predators and parasitoids are integral components of any IPM system and play an important part in regulating pest populations. Some generalist predators such as ants, spiders, damsel bugs and assassin bugs are known to predate on mirids. Nothing is known about parasitoids of mirids. Since green mirid (GM), Creontiades dilutus, is indigenous to Australia it is likely that we have one or more parasitoids of this mirid in Australia, but that possibility has not been investigated yet. The impact of the GVB adult parasitoid, Trichopoda giacomelli, has been studied by Dr Khan who found that the fly is established in the released areas and continues to spread. However, to get wider and greater impact, the fly should be released in new locations across the valleys. The insecticides registered for mirids and stinkbugs are mostly non-selective and are extremely disruptive to a wide range of beneficial insects. Use of these insecticides at stage I and II will minimise the impact of existing IPM programs. Therefore less disruptive control tactics including soft chemicals for mirids and stinkbugs are necessary. As with soft chemicals, salt mixtures, biopesticides based on fungal pathogens and attractants based on plant volatiles may be useful tools in managing mirids and stinkbugs with less or no disruption. Dr Khan has investigated salt mixture against mirids and GVB. While salt mixtures are quite effective and less disruptive, they are quite chemical specific. Not all chemicals mixed with salt will give the desired benefit. Therefore further investigation is needed to identify those chemicals that are effective with salt mixture against mirids and 3 of 37 GVB. Dr Caroline Hauxwell of DPI&F is working on fungal pathogen-based biopesticides against mirids and GVB and Drs Peter Gregg and Alice Del Socorro of Australian Cotton CRC are working on plant volatile-based attractants against mirids. Depending on their findings, inclusion of fungal-based biopestcides and plant volatile-based attractants in developing a management system against mirids and stinkbugs in cotton could be an important component of an IPM approach.

Item Type:Monograph (Project Report)
Keywords:Final report IPM pest management strategies pesticide resistance strategy resistance monitoring resistance development Bollgard® II mirid damage economic cost impact stinkbugs impact on beneficials yield loss fibre quality predators green mirid (GM) Creontiades dilutus GVB adult parasitoid Trichopoda giacomelli green vegetable bug (GVB) soft chemicals salt mixtures biopesticides fungal pathogen-based biopesticides plant volatile-based attractants best management practices
Subjects:Plant pests and diseases > Individual or types of plants or trees > Cotton
Agriculture > Agriculture (General) > Agricultural ecology (General)
Plant pests and diseases
Agriculture > Agriculture (General) > Agriculture and the environment
Deposited On:14 Nov 2011 03:59
Last Modified:01 Feb 2017 05:44

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