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Developing and communicating strategies for controlling virus diseases in vegetable cucurbit crops

Coutts, Brenda and Jones, Roger and Kehoe, Monica and Persley, Denis and McMichael, Lee (2012) Developing and communicating strategies for controlling virus diseases in vegetable cucurbit crops. Project Report. Horticulture Australia.

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Article Link(s): http://ausveg.com.au/intranet/technical-insights/d...

Abstract

Virus diseases cause serious yield and quality losses in field grown cucurbit crops worldwide. In Australia, the main viruses of cucurbits are Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Squash mosaic virus (SqMV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). Plants infected early have severely distorted fruit. High infection incidences, of ZYMV and PRSV in crops cause losses of marketable fruit of up to 100% and infected crops are often abandoned.
Two new alternative hosts of ZYMV were identified, the native cucurbit Cucumis maderaspatanus and wild legume Rhyncosia minima. No new alternative hosts of PRSV, SqMV or WMV were found in Western Australia or Queensland. Seed transmission of ZYMV (0.7%) was found in seedlings grown from ZYMV-infected fruit of zucchini but not of pumpkin. None was detected with PRSV or SqMV in zucchini or pumpkin seedlings, respectively.
ZYMV spread to pumpkins by aphids was greater downwind than upwind of a virus source. Delaying sowing by 2 weeks decreased ZYMV spread. Millet non-host barriers between pumpkin plantings slowed ZYMV infection. Host resistance gene (zym) in cucumber cultivars was effective against ZYMV. Pumpkin cultivars with resistance gene (Zym) became infected under high virus pressure but leaf symptoms
were milder and infected plants higher yielding with more market-acceptable fruit than those without Zym. Most zucchini cultivars with Zym developed severe leaf and
fruit symptoms.
ZYMV, PRSV, WMV and SqMV spread readily from infected to healthy cucurbit plants by direct leaf contact. ZYMV survives and remains infective on diverse surfaces for up to 6 hours but can be inactivated by some disinfectants.
Phylogenetic analysis indicates at least three separate introductions of ZYMV into Australia, with new introductions rarely occurring. ZYMV isolates clustered into
three groups according to collection location i) Kununurra, ii) Northern Territory and iii) Carnarvon, Qld and Vic. A multiplex Real-Time PCR was developed which distinguished between the three groups of Australian isolates.
Integrated disease management (IDM) strategies for virus diseases of vegetable cucurbit crops grown in the field were improved incorporating the new information gathered. These strategies are aimed at causing using minimal extra expense, labour demands and disruption to normal practices.

Item Type:Monograph (Project Report)
Business groups:Horticulture and Forestry Science
Keywords:Final report
Subjects:Plant pests and diseases > Pest control and treatment of diseases. Plant protection
Plant culture > Vegetables
Plant pests and diseases > Plant pathology
Agriculture > Agriculture (General) > Agricultural education > Agricultural extension work
Deposited On:14 Nov 2011 06:34
Last Modified:02 Feb 2017 06:18

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