Login | Request Account (DAF staff only)

The use of temperate species in the Australian subtropics.

Lowe, K.F. (2009) The use of temperate species in the Australian subtropics. In: Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association, November 2009, Waitangi, New Zealand.

Full text not currently attached. Access may be available via the Publisher's website or OpenAccess link.

Publisher URL: http://www.grassland.org.nz/publications.php?proceeding=84&PHPSESSID=3df51a3c6d4cec8cd396eeef199edbc4


Temperate species and tropical crop silage are the basis for forage production for the dairy industry in the Australian subtropics. Irrigation is the key resource needed for production, with little survival of temperate species under rain-grown conditions except for lucerne. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), fertilised with either inorganic nitrogen or grown with clovers, is the main cool season forage for the dairy industry. It is sown into fully prepared seedbeds, oversown into tropical grasses, especially kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) or sown after mulching. There has been a continual improvement in the performance of annual and hybrid ryegrass cultivars over the last 25 years. In small plot, cutting experiments, yields of annual ryegrass typically range from 15 to 21 t DM/ha, with equivalent on-farm yields of 7 to 14 t DM/ha of utilised material. Rust (Puccinia coronata) remains the major concern although resistance is more stable than in oats. There have also been major improvements in the performance of perennial ryegrass (L. perenne) cultivars although their persistence under grazing is insufficient to make them a reliable forage source for the subtropics. On the other hand, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and prairie grass (Bromus willdenowii) cultivars perform well under cutting and grazing, although farmer resistance to the use of tall fescue is strong. White clover (Trifolium repens) is a reliable and persistent performer although disease usually reduces its performance in the third year after sowing. Persian (Shaftal) annual clover (T. resupinatum) gives good winter production but the performance of berseem clover (T. alexandrinum) is less reliable and the sub clovers (T. subterraneum) are generally not suited to clay soils of neutral to alkaline pH. Lucerne (Medicago sativa), either as a pure stand or in mixtures, is a high producing legume under both irrigation and natural rainfall. Understanding the importance of leaf and crown diseases, and the development of resistant cultivars, have been the reasons for its reliability. Insects on temperate species are not as serious a problem in the subtropics as in New Zealand (NZ). Fungal and viral diseases, on the other hand, cause many problems and forage performance would benefit from more research into resistance.

Item Type:Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Corporate Creators:DEEDI
Additional Information:© New Zealand Grassland Association Inc
Keywords:Clay soils; clovers; crop yield; cultivars; dairy industry; disease resistance; forage; fungal diseases; grazing; irrigation; lucerne; mulching; nitrogen fertilizers; oats; alfalfa; cultivated varieties; plant diseases; plant pathogens; plant viruses; silage plants; soil pH; subtropics; viral diseases; pasturing; resistance to disease; subtropical zones; viral infections; viruses of plants; Australia; New Zealand.
Subjects:Agriculture > Agriculture (General) > Agricultural economics
Plant pests and diseases
Plant culture > Field crops > Forage crops. Feed crops
Live Archive:16 Dec 2010 06:58
Last Modified:03 Sep 2021 16:48

Repository Staff Only: item control page