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The distribution and spread of citrus canker in Emerald, Australia

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Gambley, C., Miles, A. K., Ramsden, M., Doogan, V.J., Thomas, J. E., Parmenter, K. S. and Whittle, P.J.L. (2009) The distribution and spread of citrus canker in Emerald, Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 38 (6). pp. 547-557.


Article Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AP09043

Publisher URL: http://www.publish.csiro.au


Citrus canker is a disease of citrus and closely related species, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. This disease, previously exotic to Australia, was detected on a single farm [infested premise-1, (IP1). IP is the terminology used in official biosecurity protocols to describe a locality at which an exotic plant pest has been confirmed or is presumed to exist. IP are numbered sequentially as they are detected] in Emerald, Queensland in July 2004. During the following 10 months the disease was subsequently detected on two other farms (IP2 and IP3) within the same area and studies indicated the disease first occurred on IP1 and spread to IP2 and IP3. The oldest, naturally infected plant tissue observed on any of these farms indicated the disease was present on IP1 for several months before detection and established on IP2 and IP3 during the second quarter (i.e. autumn) 2004. Transect studies on some IP1 blocks showed disease incidences ranged between 52 and 100% (trees infected). This contrasted to very low disease incidence, less than 4% of trees within a block, on IP2 and IP3. The mechanisms proposed for disease spread within blocks include weather-assisted dispersal of the bacterium (e.g. wind-driven rain) and movement of contaminated farm equipment, in particular by pivot irrigator towers via mechanical damage in combination with abundant water. Spread between blocks on IP2 was attributed to movement of contaminated farm equipment and/or people. Epidemiology results suggest: (i) successive surveillance rounds increase the likelihood of disease detection; (ii) surveillance sensitivity is affected by tree size; and (iii) individual destruction zones (for the purpose of eradication) could be determined using disease incidence and severity data rather than a predefined set area.

Item Type:Article
Business groups:Crop and Food Science, Horticulture and Forestry Science
Additional Information:© Australasian Plant Pathology Society. © CSIRO.
Keywords:Biosafety; cankers; contamination; damage; dispersal; epidemiology; introduced species; mechanical damage; pests; plant pathogenic bacteria; plant pathogens; plant pests; plant tissues; citrus; fungal diseases.
Subjects:Plant pests and diseases > Individual or types of plants or trees
Live Archive:04 Feb 2010 06:31
Last Modified:12 Sep 2022 06:46

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