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First Isolation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype IV from Mosquitoes in Australia

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Pyke, A. T., Burtonclay, P., Poudel, N., Ingall, W., Nair, N., Hall-Mendelin, S., Craig, S. B., Smith, C. S., Wang, W., Darbro, J. M., Jansen, C. C. and van den Hurk, A. F. (2024) First Isolation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype IV from Mosquitoes in Australia. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases . ISSN 1530-3667

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Article Link: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2024.0017


Introduction: Widespread transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype four (GIV) occurred across mainland Australia in 2022. This resulted in forty-five human cases, including seven deaths, and the identification of JEV infection in over 80 commercial piggeries. Materials and Methods: We collected mosquitoes which were trapped using CO2-baited light traps deployed near piggeries reporting disease or in regions linked to human cases in the Wide Bay region in the state of Queensland. Mosquitoes from four traps yielded JEV RNA by real-time RT-PCR. Pools containing RNA positive mosquitoes were inoculated onto mosquito cell monolayers. Discussion: A single isolate of JEV was obtained from a pool of mixed mosquito species. Near whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the JEV isolate demonstrated its high genomic relatedness with JEV GIV pig sequences sampled from Queensland and the state of New South Wales in 2022. Conclusion: We report the first isolation of JEV GIV from mosquitoes collected in Australia. With only a few JEV GIV isolates available globally, the isolate we report will be essential for future research of JEV host interactions, evolution and disease markers, and development of effective therapies, vaccines, diagnostic assays, and mosquito control strategies.

Item Type:Article
Corporate Creators:Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland
Business groups:Biosecurity Queensland
Subjects:Science > Entomology
Veterinary medicine > Veterinary virology
Veterinary medicine > Communicable diseases of animals (General)
Agriculture > By region or country > Australia
Live Archive:17 Apr 2024 23:30
Last Modified:17 Apr 2024 23:30

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