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Peanut resistance to Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum

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Cruickshank, A. W., Cooper, M. and Ryley, M. J. (2002) Peanut resistance to Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 53 (10). pp. 1105-1110. ISSN 1836-0947


Article Link: https://doi.org/10.1071/AR02013


The fungi Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum are the causal agents of two similar diseases of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Both diseases cause significant losses in the Australian peanut industry. Development of cultivars with resistance to Sclerotinia will be an important component of integrated control. The aims of this project are to generate information that will assist in breeding for Sclerotinia resistance in peanut: to identify Sclerotinia-resistant peanut germplasm, to understand the inheritance and estimate heritability of resistance, and to test the effectiveness of identified sources of resistance against both S. minor and S. sclerotiorum.
This study has clearly established that material that shows resistance to S. minor in the USA is resistant to S. minor and likely to be resistant to S. sclerotiorum in Australia. The high level of resistance to both S. minor and S. sclerotiorum in germplasm from Texas, particularly TxAG-4, was confirmed. VA 93B showed good resistance in the field, which is primarily due to the open bush type rather than physiological resistance. Physiological resistance to S. minor was also identified in a cultivar and a landrace from Indonesia and a rust-resistant line from Queensland. All germplasm found to have high physiological resistance to S. minor belonged to the Spanish type.

Inheritance of physiological resistance to S. minor was studied using a Generation Means Analysis (GMA) of the cross TxAG-4/VA 93B and its reciprocal. The broad-sense heritability of physiological resistance on a single plant basis was estimated at 47%, much higher than earlier estimates obtained in field studies. The average gene action of Sclerotinia resistance genes from TxAG-4 was found to be additive. No dominance effects were detected in the GMA. A small but significant reciprocal effect between TxAG-4 and VA 93B indicated that VA 93B passed on some physiological resistance maternally.

An experiment was conducted to confirm the value of resistance against both S. minor and S. sclerotiorum. TxAG-4 was found to have physiological resistance to both S. minor and S. sclerotiorum. This resistance was expressed against both Sclerotinia species by progeny that were selected for resistance to S. minor.

On the basis of the information obtained, the comparative advantages of 3 strategies for Sclerotinia-resistant cultivar development are discussed: (1) introduction of germplasm; (2) recurrent backcrossing with screening and crossing in the BCnF1 generation; and (3) pedigree selection. At present, introduction and backcrossing are recommended as the preferred strategies.

Item Type:Article
Subjects:Plant pests and diseases > Individual or types of plants or trees
Plant pests and diseases > Plant pathology
Live Archive:12 Jan 2024 04:41
Last Modified:12 Jan 2024 04:41

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