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Sequence diversity and differential expression of major phenylpropanoid-flavonoid biosynthetic genes among three mango varieties

Hoang, V. L. T. and Innes, D. J. and Shaw, P. N. and Monteith, G. R. and Gidley, M. J. and Dietzgen, R. G. (2015) Sequence diversity and differential expression of major phenylpropanoid-flavonoid biosynthetic genes among three mango varieties. BMC Genomics, 16 (1).

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Article Link(s): http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-015-1784-x

Abstract

Background: Mango fruits contain a broad spectrum of phenolic compounds which impart potential health benefits; their biosynthesis is catalysed by enzymes in the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid (PF) pathway. The aim of this study was to reveal the variability in genes involved in the PF pathway in three different mango varieties Mangifera indica L., a member of the family Anacardiaceae: Kensington Pride (KP), Irwin (IW) and Nam Doc Mai (NDM) and to determine associations with gene expression and mango flavonoid profiles. Results: A close evolutionary relationship between mango genes and those from the woody species poplar of the Salicaceae family (Populus trichocarpa) and grape of the Vitaceae family (Vitis vinifera), was revealed through phylogenetic analysis of PF pathway genes. We discovered 145 SNPs in total within coding sequences with an average frequency of one SNP every 316bp. Variety IW had the highest SNP frequency (one SNP every 258bp) while KP and NDM had similar frequencies (one SNP every 369bp and 360bp, respectively). The position in the PF pathway appeared to influence the extent of genetic diversity of the encoded enzymes. The entry point enzymes phenylalanine lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-mono-oxygenase (C4H) and chalcone synthase (CHS) had low levels of SNP diversity in their coding sequences, whereas anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) showed the highest SNP frequency followed by flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H). Quantitative PCR revealed characteristic patterns of gene expression that differed between mango peel and flesh, and between varieties. Conclusions: The combination of mango expressed sequence tags and availability of well-established reference PF biosynthetic genes from other plant species allowed the identification of coding sequences of genes that may lead to the formation of important flavonoid compounds in mango fruits and facilitated characterisation of single nucleotide polymorphisms between varieties. We discovered an association between the extent of sequence variation and position in the pathway for up-stream genes. The high expression of PAL, C4H and CHS genes in mango peel compared to flesh is associated with high amounts of total phenolic contents in peels, which suggest that these genes have an influence on total flavonoid levels in mango fruit peel and flesh. In addition, the particularly high expression levels of ANR in KP and NDM peels compared to IW peel and the significant accumulation of its product epicatechin gallate (ECG) in those extracts reflects the rate-limiting role of ANR on ECG biosynthesis in mango. © 2015 Hoang et al.

Item Type:Article
Business groups:Horticulture and Forestry Science
Keywords:Expressed sequence tags Gene expression Mango fruit Nucleotide diversity Phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway anthocyanidin reductase chalcone synthase cinnamate 4 monooxygenase enzyme flavonoid phenylalanine lyase unclassified drug Article controlled study flavonoid gene gene sequence genetic association genetic code genetic variability grape mango molecular evolution molecular phylogeny nonhuman nucleotide sequence phenylpropanoid gene plant gene Populus trichocarpa quantitative analysis signal transduction single nucleotide polymorphism transcription regulation upregulation varietas Anacardiaceae Mangifera indica Salicaceae Vitaceae Vitis vinifera
Subjects:Science > Botany > Genetics
Plant culture > Fruit and fruit culture
Deposited On:31 Aug 2015 03:56
Last Modified:01 Aug 2016 23:48

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