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An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: Phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea on avocado and other plant hosts

Kasson, Matthew T. and O’Donnell, Kerry and Rooney, Alejandro P. and Sink, Stacy and Ploetz, Randy C. and Ploetz, Jill N. and Konkol, Joshua L. and Carrillo, Daniel and Freeman, Stanley and Mendel, Zvi and Smith, Jason A. and Black, Adam W. and Hulcr, Jiri and Bateman, Craig and Stefkova, Kristyna and Campbell, Paul R. and Geering, Andrew D. W. and Dann, Elizabeth K. and Eskalen, Akif and Mohotti, Keerthi and Short, Dylan P. G. and Aoki, Takayuki and Fenstermacher, Kristi A. and Davis, Donald D. and Geiser, David M. (2013) An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: Phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea on avocado and other plant hosts. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 56 . pp. 147-157. ISSN 1087-1845

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Article Link(s): http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.2013.04.004

Abstract

Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses, as evidenced by the 11 independent origins and 3500 species of ambrosia beetles. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) symbionts are unusual in that some are plant pathogens that cause significant damage in naive natural and cultivated ecosystems, and currently threaten avocado production in the United States, Israel and Australia. Most AFC fusaria produce unusual clavate macroconidia that serve as a putative food source for their insect mutualists. AFC symbionts were abundant in the heads of four Euwallacea spp., which suggests that they are transported within and from the natal gallery in mandibular mycangia. In a four-locus phylogenetic analysis, the AFC was resolved in a strongly supported monophyletic group within the previously described Cade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC). Divergence-time estimates place the origin of the AFC in the early Miocene similar to 21.2 Mya, which coincides with the hypothesized adaptive radiation of the Xyleborini. Two strongly supported clades within the AFC (Clades A and B) were identified that include nine species lineages associated with ambrosia beetles, eight with Euwallacea spp. and one reportedly with Xyleborus ferrugineus, and two lineages with no known beetle association. More derived lineages within the AFC showed fixation of the clavate (club-shaped) macroconidial trait, while basal lineages showed a mix of clavate and more typical fusiform macroconidia. AFC lineages consisted mostly of genetically identical individuals associated with specific insect hosts in defined geographic locations, with at least three interspecific hybridization events inferred based on discordant placement in individual gene genealogies and detection of recombinant loci. Overall, these data are consistent with a strong evolutionary trend toward obligate symbiosis coupled with secondary contact and interspecific hybridization. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Item Type:Article
Business groups:Horticulture and Forestry Science
Keywords:Ambrosia fungi Divergence dating Evolution Mutualism Mycangia Symbiosis
Subjects:Plant pests and diseases > Plant pathology
Plant culture > Tree crops
Deposited On:03 Oct 2014 04:16
Last Modified:13 Jul 2015 05:37

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