Pulliam, J. R. C. and Epstein, J. H. and Dushoff, J. and Rahman, S. A. and Bunning, M. and Jamaluddin, A. A. and Hyatt, A. D. and Field, H. E. and Dobson, A. P. and Daszak, P. (2012) Agricultural intensification, priming for persistence and the emergence of Nipah virus: a lethal bat-borne zoonosis. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 9 (66). pp. 89-101. ISSN 1742-5689
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Article Link(s): http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2011.0223
Emerging zoonoses threaten global health, yet the processes by which they emerge are complex and poorly understood. Nipah virus (NiV) is an important threat owing to its broad host and geographical range, high case fatality, potential for human-to-human transmission and lack of effective prevention or therapies. Here, we investigate the origin of the first identified outbreak of NiV encephalitis in Malaysia and Singapore. We analyse data on livestock production from the index site (a commercial pig farm in Malaysia) prior to and during the outbreak, on Malaysian agricultural production, and from surveys of NiV's wildlife reservoir (flying foxes). Our analyses suggest that repeated introduction of NiV from wildlife changed infection dynamics in pigs. Initial viral introduction produced an explosive epizootic that drove itself to extinction but primed the population for enzootic persistence upon reintroduction of the virus. The resultant within-farm persistence permitted regional spread and increased the number of human infections. This study refutes an earlier hypothesis that anomalous El Nino Southern Oscillation-related climatic conditions drove emergence and suggests that priming for persistence drove the emergence of a novel zoonotic pathogen. Thus, we provide empirical evidence for a causative mechanism previously proposed as a precursor to widespread infection with H5N1 avian influenza and other emerging pathogens.
|Business groups:||Animal Science|
|Additional Information:||Pulliam, Juliet R. C. Epstein, Jonathan H. Dushoff, Jonathan Rahman, Sohayati A. Bunning, Michel Jamaluddin, Aziz A. Hyatt, Alex D. Field, Hume E. Dobson, Andrew P. Daszak, Peter|
|Subjects:||Veterinary medicine > Diseases of special classes of animals > Swine|
Animal culture > Small animal culture
Veterinary medicine > Veterinary pathology
|Deposited On:||25 Feb 2014 03:49|
|Last Modified:||25 Feb 2014 03:49|
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